low latency.audio

This website is dedicated to the New Jersey Gay Men's Chorus

A partial history of faster-than-sound-in-air audio transmission

Upper Paleolithic

Before written history and before faster-than-sound audio transmission

It is [unnecessary]formally[/unnecessary] possible that the performance of music during the Upper Paleolithic more than ten-thousand years ago was often carried out acoustically (transmission of sound through shared air).
sarahshmee · Ancient conch shell plays its first tune in 18,000 years

Physical evidence is consistent with the proposition that music was made 18,000 years before the present.


Condensed-phase media

Because two neighbors might have yelled at each other through a shared wall before the end of the Renaissance, transmission of sound through condensed-phase material probably occurred before the end of the Renaissance.
Engraving of man and woman using a tin can phone

Tin can telephone

Adapted from Le téléphone, le microphone et le phonographe (1880, 3rd edition), by Théodose du Moncel (1821-1884) (Wikimedia page)

19th- and 20th-Centuries

Electricity and electrons

Telephony is revolutionized by use of electricity, invention of the concept of the electron, invention of the transistor, and digital sampling.
(recording not vetted)

Public switched telephone network (PSTN)

Phone conversations over circuit-switched analog and analog-digital networks of the 19th and 20th-Century (analog PSTN and GSM-digitized PSTN) often had fantastic same-room latency.


1918 H1N1 influenza pandemic severely reduced availability of phone service

Phone connections were typically made by human operators at switchboards. Infections of operators reduced phone company capacity, and customers were asked to avoid unnecessary phone use.

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)

ISDN transmitted compressed digital audio over twisted pair copper wire phone lines. Depending on configuration, an as-though-in-the-same-recording-studio experience was possible.

Early 21st-Century

Academic development of low-latency audio over packet-switched digital networks

One of the hubs of activitiy is the Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics at Stanford University.

CCRMA/Stanford-McGill University

StreamBD ( JackTrip predecessor)
Excerpt from jam by performers in California and Québec starts after timepoint 3 min 26 seconds in the demo reel.

CCRMA/Stanford-U. Montana, Missoula-U. Victoria

Excerpt from jam by performers in California, Montana, and British Columbia starts after timepoint 4 min 00 seconds in the demo reel.

German-French Soundjack demo

Soundjack creator, Alex Carôt performs as part of a group of musicians from Lübeck, Paris, and Berlin.

D/FW, Austin, & San Antonio, TX

A jazz quartet from the Dallas/Forth Worth area, Austin, and San Antonia, TX plays together.

Virtual Jam Fest 2014

2014 March 12
Mingo Fishtrap plays for Virtual Jam Fest 2014. Members connect from three sites in the Austin, TX area.


2019 July 17
MusicForAll livestreamed the world's first livestreamed 5G music lesson, which was taught by Jamie Callum.

Jitterbuffer: Münchberg-Nürnberg-München

Published to YouTube 2019 October 18
Jitterbuffer is a band of German musicians who jam over Jamulus.

Early 21st-Century

A Dark Age for consumer telephony

Super-high-quality low-latency digital audio experiences were becoming more available outside the worlds of voice-over actors using ISDN and academic researchers developing software platforms. However, it was still typical for consumers not to have experience with low-latency digital audio in the early 2000s, when cell phones on 2G, 3G, and 4G cellular networks were prevalent and WiFi 6 (802.11ax) routers were not.

On Tuesday,
2020 March 10,

Cartoon of smartphone with three speech banners reading, 'No, you go first,' 'What did you say?' and 'You don't need to yell!'

cell phones provide poor call quality and latency

Prevalent exclusive reliance on digital cell phone service means that many young adults are accustomed to a phone call being laggy, heavily compressed, and yell-inducing.

and home networks are typically not set up for low-latency data transmission.

Older WiFi standards can be unsuitable for low-latency audio because they too easily allow all usable spectrum to be used by ongoing transmissions. WiFi 6 subdivides spectrum into small portions so that even if multiple devices are already transmitting, at least a little portion of spectrum is likely to remain available for the next device that needs to transmit. Before WiFi 6 was widely available, reliably establishing a low-latency, low-jitter connection between a router and computer usually meant using an Ethernet cable, which was often not used (except by gamers).

Then, on Wednesday,
2020 March 11

The World Health Organization declares COVID-19 a pandemic.

Spring of 2020

For a lot of institutions, instructors, students, leaders, and ensembles, pausing in-person meetings means


Some people make alternatives work.

JamKazam Music Festival

2020 May 30
Various artists perform live (mixed genres).

JamKazam Juneteenth Music Festival

2020 June 19
Various artists perform live (jazz and rock) on Juneteenth 2020.


2020 July 15
WorldJam livestreams a concert.

Texas-North Carolina-Rhode Island

Published to YouTube 2020 July 18
Soundjack and Jitsi
Eden Casteel (RI), Dr. Amy Stewart (TX), and Wendy Jones (NC) make music together.

Dan Tepfer / Paul Sikivie: Quarantune

2020 July 20
Dan Tepfer (one of the future founders of FarPlay) and Paul Sikivie livestream their performance of a piece Dan had written the night before.

Ian Howell/NEC

Over the summer of 2020
Dr. Ian Howell and colleages at the New England Conservatory demonstrate that Soundjack allows a full voice teaching program to be carried out remotely.

Tepfer / Harland / Roeder: Late Night Geometry

2020 November 23
Dan Tepfer (one of the future founders of FarPlay), Eric Harland, and Jorge Roeder livestream Dan Tepfer's Late Night Geometry. cf. New Yorker 2021 March 3

Philly Sacred Harp

Published to YouTube 2020 December 4
"Singers from Philadelphia, Maryland, Massachusetts, Virginia, Nebraska, and Kentucky singing from The Sacred Harp, p. 335 Return Again"

Dan Tepfer / Robert Ikiz: Take Five

2020 December 6
Dan Tepfer (one of the future founders of FarPlay) and Robert Ikiz livestream their rendition of Paul Desmond's Take Five.

Ragazzi Boys Chorus, Silicon Valley

2020 December 13
Ragazzi Boys Chorus includes five live performances as part of their holiday concert, "Beyond the Stars.

NAVE Voices Christmas

Premiered on YouTube 2020 Dec. 17
Members of North American Vocal Ensemble (Dr. Bonnie Borshay Sneed, Conductor) perform holiday music from sites spread across the conterminous United States.

JamKazam Classical Music Festival

2021 January 2
Various artists perform live classical music.


Published to YouTube 2021 January 9
Eden Casteel (soprano in RI), Dr. Chelsea Whittaker (piano, MA), and Dr. Ian Howell (sound engineer, MA) produce a paraody of Schubert's "Gretchen Am Spinnrade."

The Eden Show vol. 2: Wendy Jones

2021 January 29
Eden Casteel and Wendy Jones livestream the second episode of the Eden Show.

London City Voices Rehearsal

Published to YouTube 2021 January 30
A group of members of London City Voices successfully experiment with rehearsing over Jamulus and Zoom.

London City Voices
Stacy's Mom

Published to YouTube 2021 January 30
London City Voices rehearse "Stacy's Mom."

Songwriting Session

2021 February 10
Ben Soleim (The Benjaneer) and fellow musicians demonstrate using SonoBus in an early stage of writing a song.

London City Voices
Can't Help Falling in Love

Published to YouTube 2021 March 17
London City Voices perform "Can't Help Falling in Love."

Whitacre, SFGC, Ragazzi Boys Chorus, & SCCC

2021 May 21
Eric Whitacre and three choruses in California premiere "Sing Gently.

I Have Had Singing

2021 May 10, 17, & 24
Soundjack and LiveLab
Some members of the New Jersey Gay Men's Chorus rehearse Ron Jeffers's "I Have Had Singing."

Untraveled Worlds

2021 June 7
Soundjack and LiveLab
A group of members of the New Jersey Gay Men's Chorus rehearses Paul Halley's "Untraveled Worlds." Lowish-latency LiveLab video allows in-the-moment conducting of changing of tempo.


2021 September 9
Soundjack creator, Alex Carôt, and musicians from both sides of the North Atlantic perform live for a demonstration of Soundjack at the 30th anniversary celebration of Hochschule Anhalt.

The Eden Show vol. 27: Alex Carôt & Bernd Keul

2021 September 23
Eden Casteel livestreams the 27th episode of The Eden Show with guest and Soundjack creator Alex Carôt and a special appearance by Bernd Keul.

2 Pianos 250 km apart

Published to YouTube 2021 October 28
Roberto Prosseda and Alessandra Ammara play Fantasie in F minor by Franz Schubert while separated by 250 km (Cremona and Prato in Italy).

New Jersey Gay Men's Chorus

Soundjack and LiveLab
See what New Jersey Gay Men's Chorus members did with Soundjack and LiveLab video during the 2020-2021 in-person rehearsal hiatus.

Dan Tepfer / Gilad Hekselman

Published to YouTube 2021 Dec. 18
Dan Tepfer (one of FarPlay's founders) and Gilad Hekselman play All The Things You Are and Solar.

London City Voices
"O Holy Night"

Published to YouTube 2021 Dec. 21
London City Voices perform "O Holy Night."

Valls, Spain and Köln, Germany

Published to YouTube 2022 April 21
SonoBus and VDO.Ninja
Bernd Keul (Köln, Germany) and Javier Bofarull Anguera (Valls, Spain) improvise 1451 km apart.

Impossible music

2022 September 1
SonoBus and VDO.Ninja
SonoBus creator Jesse Jappell (Virginia), Flávio Franco Araujo (Sao Paulo, Brasil), Palo Mendex Mendes (Lisbon, Portugal), and Bernd Keul (Köln, Germany) improvised in realtime for a cafè in Köln.

Harvey Mudd College Alumni

2022 December 16
A group of Harvey Mudd College alumni and friends broadcast their holiday jam session to an unofficial alumni event.

Balltrip Voice Studio

2023 January 25
Balltrip Voice Studio's first livestream test broadcast is carried out using FarPlay and Restream and supported by the Somerset-Pulaski Economic Development Authority.

Fairfax, VA and Köln, Germany

Published to YouTube 2023 Feb. 26
SonoBus and VDO.Ninja
SonoBus creator Jesse Chappell (Fairfax, VA) and Bernd Keul (Köln, Germany) improvise 6399 km apart.

Electric Kids Collective

The Electric Kids Collective is a Maryland-based band that performs kids shows.